The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Appropriate assessments must be employed to ensure this goal is met. Valid and reliable workplace-based assessments are designed to assess competence in the many domains required of a good ophthalmologist. These assessments increase standardization and objectivity as compared to simple observational feedback. When used appropriately, workplace based assessments not only provide measures of competence but also facilitate effective formative feedback and enhance learning.