Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for retinopathy of prematurity
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative disorder of the developing retina in premature and low birth weight infants. Recently, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathophysiology of ROP has been well studied and anti-VEGF drugs have been used in phase 2 to treat ROP patients in many ways. At first, ophthalmologists began to give intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) or ranibizumab off-label to treat ROP as a salvage treatment after failure in laser photocoagulation or in combination with laser as an adjuvant treatment for patients had media opacity or rigid pupil. Now anti-VEGF drugs are also used as monotherapy in type I ROP or perioperative use in stage 4/5 ROP. Questions remain regarding long-term safety, dose, timing, visual outcomes and long-term effects, including systemically.