Pathologic myopia

Kyoko Ohno-Matsui


Pathologic myopia is the major cause of the loss of the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worldwide, especially in East Asian countries. The loss of BCVA is caused by the development of myopic macula patchy, myopic traction macula patchy, and myopic optic neuropathy (or glaucoma). The development of such vision-threatening complications is caused by eye deformity, characterized by a formation of posterior staphyloma. The recent advance in ocular imaging has greatly facilitated the clarification of pathologies and pathogenesis of pathological myopia and myopia-related complications. These technologies include ultra-wide field fundus imaging, swept-source optical coherence tomography, and 3D MRI. In addition, the new treatments such as anti-VEGF therapies for myopic choroid all neovascularization have improved the outcome of the patients. Swept-source OCT showed that some of the lesions of myopic maculopathy were not simply chorioretinal atrophy but were Bruch’s membrane holes. Features of myopic traction maculopathy have been analyzed extensively by using OCT. The understanding the pathophysiology of complications of pathologic myopia is considered useful for better management of this blinding eye disease.