Neuromyelitis optica and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) refers to an antibody mediated, inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by recurrent or monophasic attacks of optic neuritis and myelitis. Most patients with NMO possess a specific serum immunoglobin, NMO-IgG, which can serve as a biomarker for NMO. The autoantibodies target aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel protein found in the CNS including the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve. The remaining 10–25% of patients are seronegative for NMO-IgG despite meeting the diagnostic criteria for NMO. Recent studies have shown that a subset of these patients is seropositive for antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). This paper will provide an overview of the current English scientific literature published regarding the history, epidemiology, AQP4 biomarker, MOG biomarker, diagnosis, clinical features, related diseases in NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and treatments of NMO.